30 October - Thursday  
10.00-10.30   Coffee and registration  
10.30-1100 Opening of the conference  
11.00-12.00   Paper session 1
Carsten Ljunggren (Örebro University), Agonistic pragmatism and the transformation of citizenship Education

Tomas Englund (Örebro University), Towards moral education through deliberative communication
Paper session 2
Per-Olof Wickman, Britt jakobson & Per Anderhag (Stockholm University), Taste and aesthetic experience in science education

Stefano Oliverio (University of Naples Federico II), Education and the experience of reality
12.00-13.00 Lunch  
13.00-14.00   Plenary
Mark Johnson (University of Oregon), Embodied meaning and thought
14.15-15.15 Paper session 3
David Kronlid (Uppsala University), Ethical artisans

Emma Arneback (Örebro University), Moral imagination in Education 
Paper session 4
Oliver Kauffmann (Aarhus University), Dewey's conception of consciousness

Joacim Andersson (Uppsala University), Tacit knowing as embodied learning – a transactional approach 
15.15-15.45   Coffee break  
15.45-16.15 Paper session 5
Reijo Miettinen (University of Helsinki), Revitalizing Dewey's conception of the occupation of the students
Paper session 6
Naoko Saito (Kyoto University), Philosophy as translation. Higher education for global citizens?
18.30   Dinner  
  31 October - Friday
09.30-10.30 Paper session 7
Petra Hansson (Uppsala University), Witnessing the Sea is what you See?

Pernilla Andersson (Södertörn University), Would you call this mis-education?
Paper session 8
Viktor Johansson (Stockholm University), Destroying metaphysical pictures of learning

Leif Östman & Johan Öhman (Uppsala University/Örebro University), Towards a transactional theory of teaching and learning
10.30-11.00 Coffee break
11.00-12.00 Plenary
Larry Hickman (Southern Illinois University), Propositions, signs, tools, and John Dewey's new book
12.00-13.00 Lunch
13.00-14.00 Plenary
Jim Garrison (Virginia Tech), Creative self-expression as the translucent core of learning: A Deweyan transactional perspective
14.15-15.15 Paper session 9
Karim Hamza & Iann Lundegård (Stockholm University), Putting the cart before the horse

Karin Rudsberg, Johan Öhman & Leif Östman (Örebro University/Uppsala University), Transactional argumentation analysis
Paper session 10
Håkansson, Michael (Uppsala University), Educative moments and moral learning

Annie-Maj Johansson & Per-Olof Wickman (Stockholm University), Using organizing purposes to support teacher practice

15.15-15.45 Ending of the conference & Coffee


Joacim Andersson (Uppsala University), Tacit knowing as embodied learning – a transactional approach

Michael Polanyi pointed out "practical teaching must rely on the fact that the pupil's intelligence will enable him to recognise the relevant particulars," his conclusion was that "formal teaching fails to tell what the teacher knows, and the pupil must discover it for himself". If pupils are to understand what they are supposed to "discover", education must also be able to show what, in experience, pupils are supposed to privilege and attend to. Methodological challenges point to a reconceptualization of 'tacit knowledge' to 'tacit knowing'. The paper further this reconceptualization using John Dewey's transactional perspective on learning to analyse 'tacit knowing' in terms of embodiment in the context of dinghy sailing. An approach of 'body pedagogic' is used to frame the analysis of tacit knowledge in embodied practices. From this approach our bodily being and the actions we perform as such beings cannot be reduced to cultural or subjective experience. Rather, we are in a continuing educating process when it comes to our bodies (Shilling & Mellor 2007:533). Following the idea that tacit knowing is all about the internal environment (psychological and physiological) misses the fact that we share problematic situations with other people, and that they arise as a consequence of social action. Likewise, following the idea that tacit knowing is most reasonable about the external environment (tradition bound rules, culture) misses the fact that the same problematic situation can be experienced differently and call for different inquiries. The paper argues that following any of these ideas we run the risk of ascribing 'tacit knowledge' to everything that we find hard to explain in the learning process. In relation to embodied practices, the risk is that this function of our knowing will become the new "ghost in the machine" and that the meaning of the body will disappear. From a transactional perspective, the idea that "the pupil must discover it for himself" means that he or she has to learn to functionally coordinate his or her experiences to create intelligent action. When human beings respond to their internal and external environment they then have the possibility to expand their experiences and further their tacit knowing. The results shows a description of the learning process in relation to a model which emphasize situated epistemic relations (SER) and indicators (SER-indicators) of these relations to analyse what participants have to embody in the context of dinghy sailing. That is, how we observes when pupils further their 'tacit knowing' and acquire intelligent habits.

Pernilla Andersson (Södertörn University), Would you call this mis-education?

In this presentation I will, by imagining a Deweyan response, discuss under what circumstances an educational event could be called 'mis-educational'. I will use a transcript of a video-recorded lesson in Business Economics. The transcript shows a classroom discussion about an accident in an 'H&M-factory' where lots of workers lost their lives. The transcribed dialogue between teacher and students is about whether or not a business ought to control every part of the supply chain. In the presentation I would like to discuss the educational event that involves strong emotions, by using Dewey's distinction between education and mis-education: "The belief that all genuine education comes through experience does not mean that all experiences are genuinely or equally educative. Experience and education cannot be directly equated to each other. For some experiences are mis-educative. Any experience is mis-educative that has the effect of arresting or distorting the growth of further experience. An experience may be such as to engender callousness; it may produce lack of sensitivity and of responsiveness. Then the possibilities of having richer experiences in the future are restricted." (Dewey 1938/1997, p. 25)

Emma Arneback (Örebro University), Moral imagination in education: A Deweyan proposal for teachers responding to hate speech

This presentation is about moments when teachers experience hate speech in education and need to act. Based on John Dewey's work on moral philosophy and examples from teaching practice, I would like to contribute to the discussion about moral education by emphasizing the following: (1) the importance of experience, (2) the problem with prescribed morals and (3) the need for moral imagination in education. My Deweyan proposal for teachers responding to hate speech in education is to use moral imagination in education and take contextual elements into consideration when deciding how to act. Doing this would facilitate work related to doing morals and help to prevent prescribing morals as something that has already been done and that teachers (and students) have to adjust to in schools without being part of the process.

Tomas Englund (Örebro University), Towards moral education through deliberative communication

John Dewey's masterpiece Democracy and Education from 1916 is not in accordance with tendencies of current education policy implying narrow accountability and New Public Management. Still, however, Democracy and Education challenges these tendencies and represent criteria of education for democracy. In the last chapter "Theories of morals" Dewey articulates how "social perceptions and interests can be developed only in a genuinely social medium – one where there is give and take in the building up of a common experience", and he concludes that "all education which develops power to share effectively in social life is moral" (Dewey 1916/1980 p. 368 and 370). As developed earlier (Englund 2006 p. 507-508) Dewey's mentioned work from 1916 together with his The Public and its Problem from 1927 are, together with Habermas, the basic sources of inspirations for the idea of deliberative communication presented in Englund 2006. The main idea is here to "create pre-conditions for students to engage in moral deliberation and to adopt positions in relation to the world, society, and each other" (Englund 2000ab). But how shall we understand the moral dimension of deliberative communication and what makes it work?

Karim Hamza & Iann Lundegård (Stockholm University), Putting the cart before the horse

In this presentation we illustrate how a pragmatist framework, based on Dewey and Wittgenstein, may be used to address problems connected to the search for underlying causes for what occurs in activities in the science classroom. More specifically, we look at the tendency of treating generalizations of human activity as entities or structures that ultimately explain the activities from which they were initially drawn. For this purpose, we use a specifically developed heuristic to analyze two well-known studies from the field of science education, and argue that the practice of reification, that is, of creating entities out of generalizations, may possible lead to a number of unfortunate consequences. In line with Dewey we label the central consequence of this habit "Putting the cart before the horse". For instance, in one of the two studies a meta-analysis of students' reasoning in interviews or paper-and-pencil tests led to the identification of a number of core assumptions which students were said to possess. We argue that through this search for explanations based on illusory underlying entities, science education research alienates its results from those activities which it eventually wanted to meliorate.

Petra Hansson (Uppsala University), Witnessing the SEA is what you SEE? A Pragmatic Reading of Jenny Diski's Travelogue Stranger on a Train - Daydreaming and Smoking around America with Interruptions

The main aim of this paper is to investigate how people's potential and revealed movement (mobility) mean to how we relate to and make meaning of our surroundings and aims to contribute with knowledge of how meanings of environments emerge in transactions between travellers, mobile machines and physical landscapes through which we travel. The paper draws on pragmatist literary criticism and outlines a pragmatist approach to analysing literature based on John Dewey and Louise Rosenblatt's concepts of experience and transaction. This approach is used to illustrate a reading of Jenny Diski ́s work, Stranger on a train - Daydreaming and Smoking around America from 2004. Furthermore, the paper discusses pros and cons of pragmatic readings of literature in the context of environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The analysis suggests that mobility (revealed and potential movement) plays a significant role in human meaning making of environments such as land- and waterscapes. Thus, this suggests that lo- and hi-tech mobility can be viewed as important circumstances in meaning making and suggests that concepts and conceptions of nature en/countered are fabricated, i.e. trans-acted, within and through mobility in techno-social environmental space.

Michael Håkansson (Uppsala University), Educative moments and moral learning

In previous research we have conceptualised and explored, through illustrative analyses, educative moments; a moment characterized by value conflict, value criticism, value creativity and value judgment. Educative moments occur when values from different values domains – epistemological, moral, and aesthetical – not only mutually interrogate each other, but also even interpenetrate. Thus the power of the theory and the analyses lies in the possibility to identify and to actively use these moment in order to evolve and values and even to create new ones. In this paper we present a sketch of a theoretical model on the creative and educative aspect of the political in environmental sustainable education (ESE) that can be used to conceptualise and investigate the deliberation when something is at stake and where students must handle conflicts. We call that situation 'political moment'. Indeed we see the political moment as a dangerous act because something fundamental is at stake and by articulate your standpoint you not only disclosing yourself, you also expose yourself to others.; situations when your well-established opinions and "truths" may be put under strain and/or discover facts that do not fit with these opinions. In that way you not only risk changing fundamental values, you also risk your social relation. Consequently, to be rigid and objective certain risks to turn the political moment into an anti-political moment, meaning not listening to others perspective or criticize one owns. Our special concern is about the educative part of such moments or, more precise; discuss the meaning making processes when offering students experience of politics through a pluralistic approach in ESE. In such way we want to address more fully the political aspect that plurality gives rise to in a conflict-oriented ESE. The contribution to the ESE is an attempt of devoping a theoretical model for how to understand and analyse the creative and educative aspect of the political in ESE, building on the radical democratic theory of political and a philosophocally pragmatic approach, foremost John Dewey. For Dewey, deliberation includes a willingness to suffer, a willingness to become vulnerability: to be able to experience the world we must be willing to be wounded by it. Our analyses illustrates that ESE concerns not simply cognitive understanding and a "moral" good, but also concerns an on-going political process of conflictual – and passionate – deliberation about commitments and existential moral values. Our finding does goes hand in hand with Dewey critique on the view of rationality as devoid of feelings. He writes, (m)ore "passion", not fewer, is the answer….rationality, once more, is not a force to evoke against impulse and habit. It is attainment of a working harmony among diverse desires. "Reason" is a noun signifies the happy cooperation of a multitude disposition" (Dewey 1983, 136). For Dewey, deliberation includes a willingness to suffer, a willingness to become vulnerability: to be able to experience the world we must be willing to be wounded by it. The model can be used to conceptualise and investigate the deliberation that occurs when something is at stake and where students must handle conflicts.

Annie-Maj Johansson & Per-Olof Wickman (Dalarna University, Stockholm University), Using organizing purposes to support teacher practice

Starting from John Dewey's principle of continuity and his notions of inquiry (or "empirical method") and end-in-view we have developed a model of organizing purposes to support teacher practice. This model can be used by teachers to plan, carry out and assess transactions with students and material conditions in relation to purposes. Organizing purposes are of two kinds, namely proximate and ultimate purposes. Proximate purposes are the initial more student-centered purposes, whereas the ultimate purposes are those that students eventually will embrace as a result of the needs to deal with the inquires centered around the proximate purposes. Proximate purposes are evaluated and assessed through a number of criteria that help teachers to see how these purposes give students ends-in-view, and how they are made continuous with the ultimate purposes of a unit. In line with Dewey's notion of inquiry progression is here understood as the transformation of participation in one activity with proximate purposes into the participation in a new one with ultimate purposes. We discuss how the notion of organizing purposes has been developed by teachers to further their teaching and how it compares to the more essentialist notion of peripheral participation.

Viktor Johansson (Stockholm University), Destroying Metaphysical Pictures of Learning. From Pragmatism to Ordinary Language Philosophy

In this paper I explore different metaphysical pictures of learning in philosophy. St Augustine's picture of learning of learning without teaching and neo-pragmatist Robert Brandom's vision of teaching without learning is used to illustrate how such pictures dogmatically limits our understanding of learning. John Dewey's pragmatic view of learning is presented as a heresy to such limitations. Going on from the pragmatic vision I use Ludwig Wittgenstein's ordinary language philosophy and his attempt to destroy philosophy's metaphysical pictures of language in order to present a vision of learning that is non-dogmatic and relativized. This allows me to spell out a vision of learning as a process of autonomous learners where the result of learning (as growth) may involve both attunements in and dissonances outside established practice.

Oliver Kauffmann (Aarhus University), Dewey's conception of consciousness

John Dewey is a major figure in twentieth century educational thinking and philosophy, and his thoughts continue to have a strong impact on discussions of learning, experience, education and democracy. In this presentation I shall deal with Dewey's conception of consciousness, a topic which is underexposed in contemporary educational research and philosophy of mind. Firstly I argue that Dewey's considerations with respect to consciousness expressed in various works such as Democracy and Education (1916), Human Nature and Conduct (1922) and Experience and Nature (1925) are very close to current so called 'embodied' and 'enacted' theories of consciousness: conscious experience is constituted by the subject's bodily activities through the learning and exercising of perceptuo-motor skills. I shall describe how Dewey anticipated this highly controversial take on consciousness and discuss some pros and cons. I shall end with some brief speculations on why 'the c-word' gives rise to discomfort in a various camps of education and learning. However, if Dewey was on the right track, consciousness no longer has to be considered as a strange and ineffable aspect of experience which is better ignored or left behind as an explanatory residuum irrelevant to the aims of these disciplines.

David O Kronlid (Uppsala University), Ethical Artisans. A reflection on the function of the distinction between the moral and the ethical in environmental and sustainability education research

This paper invites a critical discussion about the distinction between the moral and the ethical in contemporary ethical theory. The purpose of the paper is to (a) deconstruct the boundary between the moral and the ethical and (b) launch a discussion about the relevance of such deconstruction for research in the field of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) that targets value issues or value questions. Swedish ethics research is heavily influenced by the distinction between the moral and the ethical. The distinction between the moral and the ethical typically says that the moral refers to e.g. feelings, actions, normative systems in practice and discourses that belongs to individuals, social groups or organisations. The distinction further says that the ethical refers to the systematic reflection of these activities and actions. According to this distinction, the ethical is constituted as, from the moral, distanced activities that operates within, and is assessed by, a normative framework that resides in predominately academia and the research fields of ethics and moral philosophy. Another way of putting it is that the moral resides in the world whereas the ethical refers to a systematically constructed view of the (moral) world. The paper wants to explore what it means to construct and deconstruct such a boundary using Ingold's (2000) distinction between different ways of apprehending the world. Drawing on Ingold´s argument that all "views" of the world are in fact different ways of apprehending the world I wish to explore what it would mean to replace a view-of-the world moral ontology with an ontology of dwelling. According to the latter both moral outlooks and ethical representations of them "are not a matter of construction but of engagement, not of building but of dwelling, not of making (an ethical) view of the (moral) world but of taking up a view in it" (Ingold 2000). As part of this undertaking, I wish to focus also on the practice of being an ethics scholar (in the ESE field) using Ingold's distinction between the artisan and the operative. I will argue that one apparent danger with ethics research that rests on the distinction addressed in this paper is that the scholar becomes detached from the context in which value dilemmas reside. Consequently, ethics may at best offer a refuge from what Zygmunt Bauman refers to as a characteristically ambivalent "moral space" in to a neat, pure and therefor less existentially challenging "cognitive space". (Bauman 1993)

Carsten Ljunggren (Örebro University), Agonistic Pragmatism and the Transformation of Citizenship Education

This paper begins with a picture of a 'problematic situation' (Dewey), namely the situation where nation-states have to cope with political and social realities such as cultural globalization and migration. Citizenship education is part of the nation-state, i.e. linked to the formal political union, the state. It is also, which is my point, linked to the nation in terms of its specific socio-cultural entity. In Sweden some 15-20% of the population is foreign-born, from more than 200 countries which has expanded the meaning of the identity of the nation, and even affected state curricula. The paper is framed by the discussion of social integration and its importance to citizenship education, focused on the meaning of national identity. Inspired by Richard Rorty's pragmatism and his vocabulary, especially 'ethnocentrism', 'we-intention' and 'contingency', I will try to make some arguments likely to understand the transformation of citizenship education in a (national) situation where 'cultural recognition' no longer appears to be an adequate concept. In order to add to Rorty's pragmatism a more pronounced action dimension, and to expand his understanding of individuality as part of citizenship, I will try some arguments where I discuss the implications of an agonistic pragmatism.

Reijo Miettinen (University of Helsinki), Revitalizing Dewey's conception of the occupation of the students

According to Dewey's the knowledge needs to be taught in school in and with definite reference to its social context of use. In School and Society he had suggested that this can be achieved by taking an occupation of the child as an organizing unit of school work. He defines it in two ways. First, it is meaningful activity in which the purpose, moral concerns, theoretical thinking and practical doing are united. Secondly, it is a "mode of activity on the part of the child which reproduces, or runs parallel to, some form of work carried on in social life". The paper suggests that the idea of occupation is continuously viable and can best realized by transcending the boundaries between school and society. The paper reports how it has been applied in a Finnish polytechnic by organizing educational enterprises (or occupations) in which the school and other societal actors collaborate in order to connect the student learning to the context of use. The results of two empirical studies on such enterprises are presented. The show that collaborative occupations revolutionized student motivation and had a significant impact on the epistemological and practical quality of learning.

Stefano Oliverio (University of Naples Federico II),Education and the Experience of Reality. The Consequences of New Realism and Pragmatism as Post-Postmodernism

The proposed paper is situated at the confluence of two debates which have been animating the philosophical-educational scene during the last few years: on the one hand, the emergence of a criticism of the limits of the constructivist metaphor in education (Roth, 2011; Biesta, 2012, 2013); on the other, the attack on post-modern constructivism and the appeal to a recovery of realism, whether negative (Eco, 1997, 2013; Ferraris, 2013b) or positive (Ferraris, 2013a). In this vein, the proposal of a new realism (Ferraris, 2012) has been put forward, the main feature of which consists, according to its proponents, in the fact that it intends to call into question the dissolution of reality in a web of interpretations which is typical of post-modernism. New realism presents itself explicitly as a kind of post-postmodernism and has Richard Rorty's neo-pragmatism and Gianni Vattimo's hermeneutical nihilism as its chief polemical targets. While sharing the misgivings about the constructivist metaphor in education, the proposed paper aims at showing also the limits of new realism, when educational questions are engaged with. In particular, it will be shown how as educationalists we should continue to stick to the kind of 'pragmatic realism' advocated by Dewey. The argumentation will be developed through an educational interpretation of Dewey's The Problem of Truth (MW 6: 12-68), which will be read in connection with Heidegger's Platons Lehre der Wahrheit and played against Rorty's educational ideas, which owe more to Hirsch than to the pragmatist tradition, insofar as they cancel the dimension of inquiry by eliding the "bruteness, constraint, 'over-and-againstness'" of experience which "is our great teacher" (Bernstein, 2010).

Karin Rudsberg & Johan Öhman & Leif Östman (Örebro University, Uppsala University), Transactional argumentation analysis

The purpose is to illustrate a method that facilitates investigations of students' learning processes in classroom discussions about socioscientific issues. The method, called transactional argumentation analysis, TAA, combines a transactional perspective on meaning making based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy and an argument analysis based on Toulmin's argument pattern. This analytical method consists of three steps. In the first step, we analyze the direction of the students' meaning making, that is, the relations construed in and by action. In the second step, we use a functional interpretation of Toulmin's argument pattern to clarify the meanings in terms of argumentative elements. Depending on the aim of the study the third step can be varied. In our studies the method has been developed and used in three different purposes. First, to study student's learning progress in terms of the way the arguments are constructed and the knowledge content used. Second, to investigate the interplay between the intra-personal and inter-personal dimensions of meaning making. Third, to clarify the role of knowledge in students' argumentative discussions.

Naoko Saito (Kyoto University), Philosophy as translation. Higher education for global citizens?

Today "Kokusai-ka" (internationalization) is one of the key phrases in policy making and curriculum development in higher education. Japan is not an exception. For Japanese universities the production of human resources in an international arena is an urgent task in order to survive in the globalized world. If internationalization is to be achieved, the whole culture of higher education needs to be transformed. In response to this need, this paper will explore an alternative mode of thinking and language for higher education, centering on the idea of "philosophy as translation" – an idea drawn from the American philosophy, Stanley Cavell. From this philosophical perspective, the paper proposes to convert our ways of thinking so that we can re-encounter different cultures as other through a process of border-crossing. It has educational implications in terms of an art of dialogue through which one exposes oneself to the other by releasing oneself and one's own culture towards the possibility of further growth. This, I shall argue, necessitates us the conversion of the discourse and mode of thinking that pervades the current education for global citizenship, political education and critical thinking in higher education. In conclusion, I shall present the possibilities of a "perfectionist education" – an idea drawn from Cavell's Emersonian perfectionism. This is in service of the enhancement of an alternative mode of global and cross-cultural dialogue. We need to tap new human resources for the global citizen – for the individual who will live by taking a chance in uncertainty. This I shall conclude to be the fundamental sense of liberal education.

Per-Olof Wickman & Britt Jakobson & Per Anderhag (Stockholm University), Taste and aesthetic experience in science education

We present the result of more than ten years of research transforming John Dewey's writings into operational concepts that can be used to study empirically how education influences students' interest and learning in school. Here we report results from science education on how (1) aesthetic experience and its continuity with learning and participation can be studied in classrooms, (2) such studies can be employed to meliorate school practice, and (3) this conceptual apparatus has been employed to study the formation of taste and interest in classrooms beyond that which students accrued because of their home background. To support the theoretical basis of these studies they also draw on Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophical investigations into language and Pierre Bourdieu's macro-sociological studies of French society. The validity of this perhaps surprising combination of scholars will be supported pragmatically by how their methodological and conceptual developments can be made continuous for the purpose of better coping with (1)–(3).

Leif Östman & Johan Öhman (Uppsala University, Örebro University), Towards a transactional theory of teaching and learning

In a research review of cultural psychology, Lehman, Chiu and Schaller (2004) conclude that although most researchers within this field admit to a mutual relationship between culture and psychological processes, two different substantial bodies of research are treated as being entirely independent. These two areas relate to: a) research into the ways that culture influences psychological processes and, b) how psychological processes contribute to the origins and persistence of cultures. The authors therefore draw attention to the need for research "that focuses more fully on the dynamic relations between psychology and culture" (ibid., p. 705). We do argue that John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy and the concept of transaction makes it possible to overcome these problems, which we will demonstrate. The presentation also includes a reflection over our 10 years long endeavour to i) transform pragmatic philosophy to a transactional theory about teaching and learning and ii) for using Wittgenstein's later work to operationalize this theory (i.e. to create analytical methods and models), thereby making it possible to produce empirical data out of video recording from classroom conversations, data that can be used in order to substantiate the theory.

Practical questions:
Martin Mickelsson
46-18471 1675